A medium-sized, slender, football-shaped fish with a pointed head and a large mouth.
Dark blue coloration on back and head, silver coloration on the belly, with mottling and small dusky blotches on the top.
Have a pointed dorsal (back) fin resembling that of related species.
They can be up to 25 inches long and up to 6 pounds.
Southeastern Alaska to Mexico.
Most common south of Point Conception, California.
Lives in the open ocean within twenty miles of shore.
Juveniles live off of sandy beaches, in open bays, and around kelp forests.
Adults live near shallow banks, from depths of 0 to 1000 feet.
They reproduce by age 4, though some as early as 1.
Spawning is at different times of year, based on location. It is year-round off of central Baja California, from late April-September off of California, and from late fall-early spring off Cabo San Lucas.
They spawn several times a year, releasing ~70,000 eggs each time.
The eggs hatch in 4-5 days.
As juveniles, they feed mainly on copepods and rotifers and larval anchovies and sardines.
Sometimes even eat smaller larvae of their own kind.
As adults, they feed on mysids and euphausiids (krill).
Large fish, sharks, tunas, marine mammals, seabirds.
Fossils of this fish have been found in the Pliocene of Italy (meaning they were around 2.2 to 3 million years ago)!
Chub mackerel larvae can consume up to 87% of their dry body weight a day!
They often school in large schools for defense, including with sardines and jack mackerel.
Sources: Diet of Larvae(n.d.). ulpgc.es. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from acceda.ulpgc.es/bitstream/10553/327/1/551.pdf; Paleobiology Database; NOAA Fisheries; NOAA Fishwatch